dilution plate method and direct plating of serially washed root segments on PDA and The two main drivers of soil microbial community structure, i.e., plant type and soil type, are thought to exert their function in a complex manner. 0000007964 00000 n Results of analysis indicate that about $669 billion was generated from the sales of crude oil between 1970 and 2010. Overall, growth enhancement efficiencies of the applied treatments were in the order: PSOFM Ë PSOF Ë PSOFMS. The intrinsic and enhanced hydrocarbons biodegradation rates were estimated from the slopes of linear regressions of cumulative curves of O-2 uptake. 2 â Bacillus sp. Different treatments for culturable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi respectively, having same alphabet are statistically the same (n = 25, ANOVA, P Ë 0.05). 0000004777 00000 n 2 Aspergillus sp. Conclusion Culturable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolated from uncontaminated soil Bacteria Fungi Bacillus sp. and Azospirillum sp., among rhizosphere isolates. 67%. Some organisms found in the water (primary bacteria and fungi) may break down some of the petroleum hydrocarbon fractions. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution Impact of petroleum pollution in a vulnerable Niger Delta ecosystem was investigated to assess interactions in a first-generation phytoremediation site of a crude oil freshly-spilled agricultural soil. 3 â Corynebacterium sp. This community is a host to a major oil company in Nigeria. The effect of oil concentration on height, root length and leaf area growth varied with plant species (P Ë 0.05). As an alternative, the addition of plants can greatly improve bioremediation rates and outcomes as plants provide microbial habitats, improve soil porosity (thereby increasing mass transfer of substrates and electron acceptors), and exchange limiting nutrients with their microbial counterparts. 0000001590 00000 n Modifications in the count and activity of microorganisms may lead to upsetting the biological equilibrium of soil, which in turn depresses its fertility. in the root zones (rhizosphere and rhizoplane) and non-rhizosphere soil of S. officinarum were assessed quantitatively There were 44.4, 71.8, 74.7, and 67.5, and 50.5, 71.8, 82.3, and 71.8% reduction in residual TPH in soil planted with P. australis and E. crassipes respectively for treatments PSO, PSOF, PSOFM, and PSOFMS as against 20.0, 62.6, 67.5, and 67.5% losses in SO, SOF, SOFM, and SOFMS. Results indicated that while culturable heterotrophic populations rose continuously throughout the study, hydrocarbon utilizing bacterial and fungal populations increased up to day-90 before diminishing in contaminated soils. In order to study bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil, petroleum contaminated soils were collected from the Zhongyuan Oil Field and microorganisms that degradate petroleum were screened from the soil. Ekundayo, E. 2004-10-05 00:00:00 EFFECT OF COMMON PESTICIDES USED IN THE NIGER DELTA BASIN OF SOUTHERN NIGERIA ON SOIL MICROBIAL POPULATIONS E. O. EKUNDAYO Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria (e-mail: email@example.com) (Received 13 March 2002; accepted 21 October 2002) Abstract. 0000008734 00000 n 0000001818 00000 n Mycelia extensional growth rate of HUF were faster on PDA than OMA for all tested Treatments were monitored for 120 days to determine their effects on the following growth parameters: Germination, germination percentage, height, and root length, dry weight, and leaf area. Evaluation of soil microbial communities as influenced by crude oil pollution ... factors. > Pseudomonas sp. Previous remediation attempts in the area had failed due to erroneous operational conclusions (such as conclusions by oil industry operators that the Niger Delta soil is covered by a layer of clay and as such oil percolation remains within the top soil and makes remediation by enhanced natural attenuation (RENA) suitable for the region) and the adoption of incompatible and ineffective … Bacterial populations were consistently higher than fungal for all applied treatments (P Ë 0.05). The ability of bacteria associated with the rhizosphere of elephant grass to enhance removal of cadmium from contaminated soil was evaluated. 57%, 40. 0000018938 00000 n Microbial Related Parameters. 0000006217 00000 n Materials and Methods: Total fungi (TF) and hydrocarbon utilizing fungi (HUF) Contaminated soil was collected from a former military airport in Kluczewo, Poland. This present study, therefore, reports the economics and environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Nigeria. ENHANCED BIO-REMOVAL OF CADMIUM FROM CONTAMINATED SOIL BY AUGMENTATION USING ELEPHANT GRASS RHIZOPHERIC BACTERIA, Growth Enhancement of Phragmites australis, Eichhornia crassipes and Saccharum officinarum for Rhizoremediation of Crude Oil, The Interaction between Plants and Bacteria in the Remediation of Petroleum Hydrocarbons: An Environmental Perspective, Economics and environmental impacts of oil exploration and exploitation in Nigeria, Bioremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Desert Soil: Effect of Biostimulation, Bioaugmentation and Bioavailability in Biopile Treatment Systems, Bioaugmentation and biostimulation: a potential strategy for environmental remediation, Microbial Response to Varying Concentrations of Crude Oil Pollution of Agricultural Soils in Ondo State, Nigeria, Bergeyâs ManualÂ® of Systematic Bacteriology: Volume Two The Proteobacteria Part B The Gammaproteobacteria, Bioaugmentation as a stratergy for cleaning up soils contaminated with aromatic compounds, Effect of plants and microorganisms on remediation of petroleum contaminated soil, Bio-remediation of a crude oil contaminated soil using water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), Characterization of Crude Oil Contaminated Soils in Niger Delta Nigeria. Autochthonous Microbial Bioaugmented Remediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil in the Niger Delta. Treatment SOFM had the highest TPH reduction in soil with 66.81 % loss at degradation rate of 39.25 mg/kg/day; SO had the lowest loss of 24.82 % at the rate of 14.58 mg/kg/day within 120 days. With in defined limits biological activity increases with increasing temperature. After a period of 10 weeks, bean seeds were planted on the remediated soil to observe if these various cells would sustain plant growth for the first 15 days. This review focuses on phytoremediation with particular interest on the interactions between and use of plant â associated bacteria to restore PHC polluted sites. The survival of these plants in oil-contaminated soils indicates that they could be used for rhizoremediation in the Niger Delta. The experiment was designed to have three treatments, (1) adding microorganisms, (2) growing plants, and (3) growing plants plus adding microorganisms. Soil inoculation with constituted autochthonous microbial consortium in conjunction with NPK fertilization was effective for localized remediation of crude oil contaminated soil. Analysis of the collected data also showed that, between 1999 and 2010, 742,983,000 m3 of gas was produced, equivalent to $192 billion if harnessed and 587,375,000 m3 flared, representing $151.3 billion loss of revenue. Corresponding treatments having different number of (*) for bacteria and fungi differ significantly (n = 5, Student's t-Test, P Ë 0.05). %PDF-1.3 %���� This review focuses on recent data relating how plant type, soil type, and soil management regime affect the microbial diversity of soil and the implication for the soil's disease suppressiveness. The results showed that combined treatment (indigenous bacteria bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant) was the most effective method of biodegradation enhancement as the 20-fold increase of biodegradation rate was observed. Risk communication has been identified as a significant factor in explaining why the health consequences of environmental degradation remain unabated in oil producing communities. 0000007517 00000 n Results showed culturable heterotrophic and hydrocarbon-utilizing microbial populations and TPH loss in planted soils were consistently higher than those in unplanted receiving corresponding treatments (P Ë 0.05). Nature of soil and 11. antagonistic interactions and bacteriophage, Delta State, Nigeria, at 0 to 15 cm depth, Bioremediation studies was carried out by, Soils contamination in pots were prepared. Chindah and Braide 42 in a study on the effect of oil spill on crop production in the Niger Delta reported that oil spill on crops caused great damage to the plant community due to high retention time of oil occasioned by limited flow. The natural Niger Delta environment we inherited from our forebears was an environment rich in bio diversity, varied species of wild life, dense population of marine and aquatic life, in fresh and salt water bodies, with rich mangrove and fresh water vegetation, flamboyant raffia and shrubs. Ford, C. Z., Sayler, G. S., Burlage, R. S. changes in tropical agricultural soil. Same was done for uninoculated contaminated control. Results obtained were analysed with a 2-Factor Analysis of Variance Excel tool for data analysis. culturable fungal species were identified as HUF out of the eight isolated fungi from the rhizosphere and rhizoplane The effect of water hyacinth on the remediation process had P-values greater than 0.05 at 1.5 and 3% which indicated that water hyacinth application may not be necessary for remediating crude oil contaminated soil at 1 and 3%. This paper evaluates health risk communication in the oil rich Niger Delta region of Nigeria. Petroleum exploration and production in the Nigeria’s Niger Delta region and export of oil and gas resources by the petroleum sector has substantially improved the nation’s economy over the past five decades. Food and energy supply 10. The chemical properties of spilled oil often affect the productiveness of soil and pollute water bodies, thereby causing irreparable damage to agricultural lands as well as aquatic bodies. The paper identified and analysed the major challenges posed by this crisis to the Nigerian State. Soil temperature: Temperature directly affects the activity of the soil biota by determining the rate of physiological activity such as enzyme activity and indirectly by affecting physico-chemical properties such as diffusion & solubility of nutrients, mineral weathering and evaporation rates and so on. Composition, structure and functions of microbial communities in soil are, however, under the constant control of the environment including various agricultural management practices. S = soil; SO = soil + oil; SOF = soil + oil + fertilizer; SOFM = soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi); SOFMS = soil + oil + fertilizer + microorganisms (hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi) + solarisation. 0000003550 00000 n Soil was monitored and evaluated for 120 days for culturable heterotrophic and hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria and fungi populations, and residual total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH). Bioaugmentation + addition of a surfactant was applied as the combined treatment. 0000010130 00000 n The Niger Delta region is the oil producing area of Nigeria, which consists of highly diverse ecosystems that are supportive of numerous species of terrestrial and aquatic fauna and flora. Plant-associated bacteria include endophytic, phyllospheric and rhizospheric bacteria, and cooperation between these bacteria and their host plants allows for greater plant survivability and treatment outcomes in contaminated sites. Brock and Machigam  described soil as a complex microbial habitat with differing microorganisms. and thus, its remediation. It is part of the Niger Delta province which occurs at the southern part of Nigeria bordering the Atlantic Ocean. ��@�xttt M�@"���HE��@����> ���`1�����W3e8� ttk ���p�a?#3�e ߃�.�- -��@,�_��`1�ܿQJ1�E�1��f��d��Km`8༇� #/���i& �0 ~�R� endstream endobj 74 0 obj 258 endobj 37 0 obj << /Type /Page /Parent 32 0 R /Resources 38 0 R /Contents [ 45 0 R 47 0 R 49 0 R 55 0 R 59 0 R 61 0 R 63 0 R 65 0 R ] /MediaBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /CropBox [ 0 0 612 792 ] /Rotate 0 >> endobj 38 0 obj << /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /Font << /TT2 39 0 R /TT4 40 0 R /TT6 52 0 R /TT8 53 0 R /TT10 57 0 R >> /ExtGState << /GS1 67 0 R >> /ColorSpace << /Cs6 43 0 R >> >> endobj 39 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 181 /Widths [ 250 0 0 0 0 833 0 0 333 333 500 564 250 333 250 278 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 500 278 278 564 0 564 444 921 722 667 667 722 611 556 722 722 333 389 722 611 889 722 722 556 0 667 556 611 722 722 944 0 722 611 0 0 0 0 0 0 444 500 444 500 444 333 500 500 278 278 500 278 778 500 500 500 500 333 389 278 500 500 722 500 500 444 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 0 444 0 500 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 576 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /FontDescriptor 42 0 R >> endobj 40 0 obj << /Type /Font /Subtype /TrueType /FirstChar 32 /LastChar 120 /Widths [ 278 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 333 333 0 0 278 333 278 278 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 556 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 667 0 0 0 667 611 0 0 0 500 0 0 833 0 778 0 0 0 667 0 0 667 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 556 556 500 556 556 0 556 556 222 222 0 222 0 556 556 556 0 333 500 278 556 500 722 500 ] /Encoding /WinAnsiEncoding /BaseFont /AOFFJC+Arial /FontDescriptor 41 0 R >> endobj 41 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 905 /CapHeight 0 /Descent -211 /Flags 32 /FontBBox [ -665 -325 2000 1006 ] /FontName /AOFFJC+Arial /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 0 /XHeight 515 /FontFile2 69 0 R >> endobj 42 0 obj << /Type /FontDescriptor /Ascent 891 /CapHeight 656 /Descent -216 /Flags 34 /FontBBox [ -568 -307 2000 1007 ] /FontName /AOFFEC+TimesNewRoman /ItalicAngle 0 /StemV 94 /XHeight 0 /FontFile2 68 0 R >> endobj 43 0 obj [ /ICCBased 66 0 R ] endobj 44 0 obj 1066 endobj 45 0 obj << /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 44 0 R >> stream Eye witnesses susppects sabotage as the cause of … recombinant genes to other microorganisms. Generally, cadmium levels decreased with time in soil. 136 STUDY AREA: NIGER DELTA The Niger Delta (see Fig. 0000001611 00000 n of S. officinarum. The soil had a pH that was, belonged to seven genera while 13 of, With the exception of the uncontaminated, TPH in soil was reduced from 7050 mg/kg at, Table 2: Culturable heterotrophic bacteria and fungi isolated from, Isolates with superscript symbol (â ) are hydrocarbon utilizing organism. Cultural practices 3. 0000001240 00000 n trailer << /Size 75 /Info 33 0 R /Root 36 0 R /Prev 223857 /ID[<6c4f0c7de279be21f4deccfa51245e39><2b5eb16984b820352441c8347cd6effc>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 36 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 32 0 R /Metadata 34 0 R /PageLabels 31 0 R >> endobj 73 0 obj << /S 217 /L 341 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 74 0 R >> stream were no significant difference occurred (P Ë 0.05). 1 Aspergillus sp. Thus, growth of these plants can be enhanced in crude oil contaminated soil by the above treatments for efficient rhizoremediation.
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