At species level, the most abundant bacteria in TDWW biofilm were D. gadei (19.04%), Pseudomonas sp. Observation of the internal microbial colonization of the carbon felt electrodes. Cyclic voltammetry performed in different conditions: (A) CV of porous carbon felt electrode immersed in TDWW; (B–D) CV of porous carbon felt electrode immersed in TDWW and HSCE sediment obtained at two different times: CVI (–): at the beginning of the experiment; CVM (–) at maximum current density. Yu, J., Park, Y., Kim, B., and Lee, T. (2015). (8.33%). Define autochthonous infection. Therefore, we concluded that these results provide for the first time a new noteworthy alternative for achieving treatment and recover energy, in the form of a high electric current, from real saline TDWW. Samples dedicated to detection of autochthonous cells were recovered under aseptic conditions from PC-C (Opalinus Clay), PAC2001 and PAC2002 (Callovo-Oxfordian) cores by nitrogen drilling, with preliminary decontamination of drilling equipment. However, COD removal in the reactor not inoculated with HSCE was much lower, i.e., 42.3%, than those in the inoculated reactors, and the production of the current also remains very low. The mentioned results are the average values with a standard deviation. There is therefore a great environmental and economical need to develop a processing technology that addresses these severe challenges. Comparison of synthetic medium and wastewater used as dilution medium to design scalable microbial anodes: application to food waste treatment. Comparative decolorization of dyes in textile wastewater using biological and chemical treatment. Energy Rev. Even on a nutrient rich medium some species take months to develop a proper colonies. Allochthonous is an antonym of autochthonous. Only few hundred milliamperes were obtained as current generation (300 mA). This type of electroactive biofilm enveloping the carbon fibers is generally a feature of biofilms in hypersaline environments (Rousseau et al., 2014). The four bioanodes grown at this polarization potential are referred to as TDWW, TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 all through the figures and text. Harmful Microorganisms The current density even tends to decrease over this anode potential range in the case of Figures 2B,D because the scanning speed is certainly too fast to ensure a steady state of bacterial metabolic phenomena limiting the production of the electron flow. The invasion of bodily tissue by pathogenic microorganisms that proliferate ... with other people or by example. Then, it is essential to isolate and evaluate autochthonous microorganisms as components of microbiological formulae with aquaculture purposes (5). Microscopic inspection of the internal porosity of the carbon felt electrodes revealed a very low degree of internal porosity colonization for the electrodes TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 (Figure 4). 12:4. doi: 10.1186/1475-2867-12-4, Berkessa, Y. W., Yan, B., Li, T., Jegatheesan, V., and Zhang, Y. A., and Baig, S. A. (2016). 38, 85–92. Allochthonous microorganisms get energy from outside sources. These strains were also noticed in previous studies on microbial communities in textile wastewater (Meerbergen et al., 2016). Bioresour. It generates large volumes of textile dyeing wastewater (TDWW) containing high concentrations of saline, alkaline, and recalcitrant pollutants that could fuel tenacious and resilient electrochemically active microorganisms in bioanodes of bioelectrochemical systems. A novel thermally stable heteropolysaccharide based bioflocculant from hydrocarbonoclastic strain Kocuria rosea BU22S and its application in dye removal. (2019). This biofilm (TDWW) composed only of autochthonous bacteria was not electrochemically effective, as shown in Figure 1. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.8b02984, Kant, R. (2012). A review of the substrates used in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for sustainable energy production. Bioelectrochemestry 129, 179–188. Single medium microbial fuel cell: Stainless steel and graphite electrode materials select bacterial communities resulting in opposite electrocatalytic activities. doi: 10.1021/es803549v, Ghaly, A. E., Ananthashankar, R., Alhattab, M., and Ramakrishnan, V. V. (2014). One of the objectives was the optimisation of the living conditions of the autochthone microorganisms taking advantage of their capability to degrade pollutants. doi: 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2016.06.006, Shehab, N. A., Ortiz-madina, J. F., Katuri, K., Hari, A. R., Logan, B. E., and Saikaly, P. E. (2017). Enrichment of extremophilic exoelectrogens in microbial electrolysis cells using Red Sea brine pools as inocula. In addition, they showed a wider spectrum of antibacterial activity than spontaneously fermented juice and seeds. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2018.02.044, Xie, S., Lawlor, P. G., Frost, J. P., Hari, A. P., Amy, G., Logan, B. E., et al. Strikingly, high current production was obtained (12.5 ± 0.2 A/m2) with biofilms (TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3) incorporated by both bacteria from HSCE and TDWW samples. Technol. Among these, as judged by colony morphology, 24 microorganisms were pre-selected by colonies morphology and differential Gram staining for later tests. Successive batches of addition of textile wastewater usually make it possible to harmonize the current densities over the long term of several replicates of experiments. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 686. (2011), organic and inorganic compounds in TDWW contain almost five times more energy than that consumed to treat it. Bioelectrochemistry 112, 24–32. Recent advances in the use of different substrates in microbial fuel cells toward wastewater treatment and simultaneous energy recovery. 5, 1–18. Environ. (2011). View all doi: 10.1039/C4CP01698J, Rousseau, R., Santaella, C., Achouak, W., Godon, J. J., Bonnafous, A., Bergel, A., et al. Process Technology. Tenacious, resistant, and exoelectrogenic microorganisms used in bioelectrochemical systems (BES) can perform the dual function of degrading pollutants and recovering in the form of electrical energy, the energy resulting from the oxidation of these pollutants. The highest current densities obtained by BES fed with real industrial effluents were 10.7 and 10.3 A/m2 where biorefinery (Pannell et al., 2016) and brewery wastewaters (Yu et al., 2015) have been used, respectively. In comparison, the electrode surfaces of TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 were much more thickly colonized. Performance of electrodialysis reversal and reverse osmosis for reclaiming wastewater from high-tech industrial parks in Taiwan: a pilot scale study. (2017). Technol. However, biological methods cannot guarantee the achievement of required results of the TDWW, as some of the dye molecules or other chemical components are hazardous and/or recalcitrant to microorganism-driven degradation. (2019). 154:149e153. J. Concerning the visible oxidation current for potentials higher than −0.4 V/SCE, it is constantly increasing from −0.4 to −0.1 V or even 0.0 V/SCE. Bioeng. Then, bioanode coupons were washed carefully with sterile physiological water after incubation and dried at ambient temperature overnight. Microbial fuel cells in saline and hypersaline environments: advancements, challenges and future perspectives. 376:120597. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2018.12.057, Rajeshwari, K. V., Balakrishnan, M., Kansal, A., Lata, K., and Kishore, V. V. N. (2000). doi: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2015.03.101, Verma, A. K., Dash, R. R., and Bhunia, P. (2012). Metagenomic analysis demonstrated significant differences in bacterial diversity mainly at species level between anodic biofilms incorporating allochthonous and autochthonous bacteria and anodic biofilm containing only autochthonous bacteria as a control. (2012). P. aquaticus (8.06–16.02%), P. alimentarius (3.04–6.5%), G. sulfurreducens (8.2–11.8%), G. metallireducens (2.5–5.4%), M. hydrocarbonoclasticus (6.3–7.4%), and M. sediminum (2.3–11.7%) as allochthonous species (and not found in rTDWW sample) were the most abundant species in TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 biofilms. (15.47%), F. aquilariae (14.28%), and Lysobacter sp. Chem. RA, BE, LE, and HC: performed bioelectrochemical experiments. 182, 351–366. AMA Style Dias I, Laranjo M, Potes ME, Agulheiro-Santos AC, Ricardo-Rodrigues S, Fialho AR, Véstia J, Fraqueza MJ, Oliveira M, Elias M. Autochthonous Starter Cultures Are Able to Reduce Biogenic Amines in a Traditional Portuguese Smoked Fermented Sausage. (2009). Previous studies have demonstrated that the bacterial phyla Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Chloroflexi were more abundant in samples from textile wastewater (Meerbergen et al., 2016). doi: 10.1007/s00792-018-1040-9, PubMed Abstract | CrossRef Full Text | Google Scholar. Evaluation of microbial proliferation on the outer surface of carbon felt electrodes by epifluorescence microscopy imaging. 243 305–314. All experiments were performed in triplicates under the same conditions to prove the reproducibility of experimental results. A core bacterial community that was shared by the three biofilms could be highly involved in the current production. Carbon felt WEs possibly covered with HSCE and/or TDWW microorganisms were removed from the reactors and imaged by epifluorescence microscopy (Figure 3). This electrode potential has particularly shown its relevance to efficiently lead to the formation of particularly robust and efficient bioanodes from wastewater (Blanchet et al., 2015) and also from sediments (Erable et al., 2017). doi: 10.1016/S1364-0321(99)00014-3, Rimboud, M., Pocaznoi, D., Erable, B., and Bergel, A. ChemElectroChem. Abundance and diversity of prokaryotes in ephemeral hypersaline lake Chott El Jerid using Illumina Miseq sequencing, DGGE and qPCR assays. Electroanalysis of microbial anodes for bioelectrochemical systems: basics, progress and perspectives. Energies 11:529. doi: 10.3390/en11030529, Gosavi, V. D., and Sharma, S. (2014). This data can be found in Zenodo: http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4276276. Environ. Table 1. ADVERTISEMENTS: Microorganisms which live in soil are algae, bacteria, actinomycetes, bacteriophages, protozoa, nematodes and fungi (Fig. Sustain. Also Read: Useful Microorganisms. Bioresour. A microorganism is a living thing that is too small to be seen with the naked eye. Humber Bay Cleaning Company. It is therefore well-established that these hazardous pollutants should be removed from TDWW by appropriate and effective methods prior to their release into the environment. autochtonous refers to sediments that are native to its location (e.g. doi: 10.1016/j.bioelechem.2017.07.006, Jiang, M., Ye, K., Deng, J., Lin, J., Ye, W., Zhao, S., et al. (2018). Toward resource recovery from textile wastewater: dye extraction, water and base/acid regeneration using a hybrid NF-BMED process. For several reasons, such as eco-friendly, cost competitive, less sludge production, and giving non-hazardous metabolites or full mineralization (Hayat et al., 2015), the biological methods are qualified as the most sustainable method for wastewater treatment. Beyond these potential values, i.e., for potentials more positive than −0.1 V or 0.0 V/SCE, the maximum speed of the exchange current is reached, and a current plateau is therefore observable between −0.1 V and +0.3 V/SCE. All the experiments of halothermotolerant bioanode formation have been conducted on 6 cm2 carbon felt electrodes polarized at −0.1 V/SCE and inoculated with 80% of TDWW and 20% of HSCE for 17 days at 45°C. He came to Japan in 1965 for training in farming and … The initial CVs of the TDWW (negative control) and TDWWS1, S2, and S3 on the porous carbon felt electrode clearly showed the absence of an electroactive biofilm due to the fate shape of the voltammogram from 0.0 to +0.3 V. Interestingly from 0.0 to −0.6, a sharp decrease of the current was observed very likely due to the electrochemical reduction of some compounds in the medium. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2015.02.097, Blanchet, E., Erable, B., De Solan, M. L., and Bergel, A. were the most representative species at relative abundances of 12.6 and 11.5%, respectively. These microorganisms have been often under-appreciated and under-studied. (2020). Eng. The 16S rRNA gene V4 variable region PCR primers 515/806 were used in single-step 30 cycles PCR using the HotStarTaqPlus Master Mix Kit (Qiagen, USA). (2019b). Another CV cycles were performed when the maximum values of the current density were reached for all reactors (turnover CVs). The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. Chong, P., Erable, B., and Bergel, A. Technol. Colonizing microorganisms were collected in the doi: 10.1016/j.apenergy.2016.01.056, Pannell, T. C., Goud, R. K., Schell, D. J., and Borole, A. P. (2016). All experiments were conducted in a 500 ml glass three-electrode reactor containing 80% of real textile effluents and 20% of saline sediments. Chem. See more. Copyright © 2020 Askri, Erable, Etcheverry, Saadaoui, Neifar, Cherif and Chouchane. 283, 211–217. Levaduras autoctonas como factores de crecimiento en Rhamdia quelen: primeras aproximaciones. As reported by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), the production of 9,072 kg of finished textile per day requires about 36,000 L of water only for wet processing (Ghaly et al., 2014; Berkessa et al., 2020). 289:121641. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121641, Chouchane, H., Mahjoubi, M., Neifar, M., and Cherif, A. Exceptions exist, however, particularly where colonial animals deposit feces derived from food consumed at a distance from the colony (e.g. A conventional three-electrode system [working electrode (WE), auxiliary electrode, and reference electrode] was implemented with a VSP multichannel potentiostat (Biologic SAS) equipped with EC lab software. Autochthonous microorganisms are primary producers (create own energy, for example, through photosynthesis. In medicine, public health, and biology, transmission is the passing of a pathogen causing communicable disease from an infected host individual or group to a particular individual or group, regardless of whether the other individual was previously infected.. Two main reasons could explain in part this significant difference in average current densities: (i) industrial wastewater is generally more conductive (7 mS/cm) than domestic wastewater (1.5 mS/cm) (Yen et al., 2016) and (ii) the total organic matter concentration in industrial wastewater is between 5,000 and 12,000 mg/L (Rajeshwari et al., 2000), whereas that in domestic wastewater is between 320 and 740 mg/L (Almeida et al., 1999). 117, 87–91. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.10.017, Pazdzior, K., Bilinska, L., and Ledakowicz, S. (2018). The experiments were conducted multiple times over 3 days and once over 44 days, whilst for the long-term On the other hand, for the other samples, TDWWS1, S2, and S3, a remarkable difference in the general shape of the turnover CVs is identified compared with their initial states and with the TDWW. Hertkorn N(1), Claus H, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Perdue EM, Filip Z. Therefore, COD change monitoring is a relevant parameter to evaluate the performance of the halothermotolerant bioanode. The purity [absorbance ratio (A260/A280)] and DNA concentration measurements (ng μl−1) were checked by Nanodrop. HC, BE, RA, SS, MN, and AC: performed microbial and genomic analyses. -L. (2016). A platinum grid was used as the counter electrode (CE), and a saturated calomel reference electrode (+0.24 V/SHE) was located between the counter and the WEs. doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2011.09.012, Vijay, A., Arora, S., Gupta, S., and Chhabra, M. (2018). (5.8–15.7%) as autochthonous species (and not found in HSCE) were also abundant in TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 biofilms. Finally, TDWWS3 showed an intermediate colonization profile between TDWWS1 and TDWWS2, with a thin continuous biofilm that closely covered the surface fibers of the carbon felt. In this context, an earlier study by Askri et al. doi: 10.4172/2157-7048.1000182, González-Muñoz, M., Dominguez-Benetton, X., Domínguez-Maldonado, J., Valdés-Lozano, D., Pacheco-Catalán, D., Ortega-Morales, O., et al. Anode acclimation methods and their impact on microbial electrolysis cells treating fermentation effluent. Halothermophilic microorganisms are thus suitable candidates for the treatment of the high saline wastewaters generated, for example, in the textile dyeing (2–10 g/L), seafood processing (8–20 g/L), tannery (40–80 g/L), and petroleum industries (few g/L to 300 g/L) (Shehab et al., 2017; Cherif et al., 2018; Askri et al., 2019). J. Environ. The textile and clothing industry has become one of the most important sectors of activity. Then, Illumina Miseq 16S rRNA sequencing was performed in order to analyze the composition of the microbial communities in HSCE and TDWW samples and in different biofilms. To study global biofilm structure at the end of experiments, WEs covered by HSCE and/or TDWW microorganisms were removed from the reactors and immediately stained with acridine orange 0.01% (A6014 Sigma) for 10 min. (2014), who point out the fundamental basic principles and advantages of the three-electrode arrangement compared with MFC or other BES devices. Indeed, previous work has shown the difficulty of electroactive biofilms to colonize the internal surfaces of felt electrode structures (Chong et al., 2019), especially when real effluents either viscous, highly charged with suspended solids, or very highly loaded with COD are used (Blanchet et al., 2016). Electrochem. Technol. 256, 391–398. 93, 154–168. These findings, achieved under both hypersaline (165 g/L) and thermophilic conditions (45°), could lead to possible applications of BES technology for treatment and energy recovering from high-temperature and high-saline wastewaters. doi: 10.1016/j.cej.2014.12.057, Chandrakant, R. H., Ananda, J. J., Dipak, V. P., Naresh, M. M., and Aniruddha, B. Most of these chemicals and products of their degradation, i.e., metabolites, are recalcitrant in nature and severely affect both aquatic and terrestrial life (Ben Mansour et al., 2012; Kant, 2012; Chandrakant et al., 2016). Samples of carbon felt WEs were TDWW that is a bioanode with very low current production (300 mA/m2) and TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3 that produced similar current densities of 12.5 ± 0.2 A/m2. The WE made of a porous carbon felt of 6 cm2 projected surface area was electrically connected to a platinum wire (1 mm diameter and 15 cm long) and polarized at −0.1 V/SCE. (2009). Sustainable approach for tannery wastewater treatment: bioelectricity generation in bioelectrochemical systems. Preparation characterization of coagulation/flocculation behavior of a novel inorganic-organic hybrid polymer for reactive disperse dyes removal. Extremophiles. (A) Bacterial distribution at phylum level of samples from raw textile dyeing wastewater (rTDWW), hypersaline sediment of Chott El Djerid (HSCE), and biofilms from a reactor containing textile dyeing wastewater (TDWW) and reactors containing 80% of TDWW and 20% of saline sediments (TDWWS1, TDWWS2, and TDWWS3). By comparing the bacterial community of these three biofilms to that hosted TDWW, considered as a control, we found that TDWW harbored less bacteria belonging to the Proteobacteria (9.47%) and Bacteroidetes (3.22%) phyla. It is only quantified in terms of bioelectrochemical kinetics, from the acquisition of the J = f(E) curves. Temperature, inocula and substrate: contrasting electroactive consortia, diversity and performance in microbial fuel cells. doi: 10.1016/j.biortech.2009.02.025, Erable, B., Byrne, N., Etcheverry, L., Achouak, W., and Bergel, A. J. Chem. However, we have also recently revealed that the physical structure of electroactive biofilms formed from sediments from HSCE, i.e., enveloping the fibers or distributed between the fibers, was not systematically a sign of improved or, on the contrary, decreased current production (Askri et al., 2019). Results from CV tests for the four different bioanodes are shown in Figure 2. Translation for 'allochthonous microorganism' in the free English-Czech dictionary and many other Czech translations. Table 1 indicates that reactors inoculated with HSCE showed satisfactory performance in terms of both current production and COD removal that were about 12.5 ± 0.2 A/m2 and 91 ± 3%, respectively. Front. Correlation of the electrochemical kinetics of high-salinity-tolerant bioanodes with the structure and microbial composition of the biofilm. Technol. (2017). (2018). Environ. autochthonous microorganisms. Appl. Chem. Sci. Samples were a mixture of saturated water and sediment (2:1 vol.:vol.) RA, SS, MN, and HC: sampling. River ecosystems are flowing waters that drain the landscape, and include the biotic (living) interactions amongst plants, animals and micro-organisms, as well as abiotic (nonliving) physical and chemical interactions of its many parts. Sci. Examples of microorganisms include bacteria, archaea, algae, protozoa, and microscopic animals such as the dust mite.. (2019a). Previous works have shown that the performance of bioanode systems is basically inversely proportional to the complexity of the substrate as in the case of TDWW (Pant et al., 2010; Pandey et al., 2016; Heidrich et al., 2018). Eng. Even so, no trace of biofilm could be seen in the core of the TDWW electrode belonging to the electrochemical reactor not inoculated with HSCE. Phys. Moreover, almost the water consumed generates large volumes of textile dyeing wastewater (TDWW). A general review on various treatment methods fortextile wastewater. However, it is worth noting that in this study, the oxidation currents obtained are almost doubled compared with those obtained with the same inoculum (HSCE) using lactate (5 g/L) as substrate (Askri et al., 2019), and the initial COD for both sets of experiments was 975 and 1,432 mg/l, respectively. Biotechnol. 100, 3302–3307. Carbon felt electrode surface has been stained with acridine orange to localize living and dead microbial cells. 185, 106–115. Technol. Examples of relictual and autochthonous endemism among island taxa will be described and adaptive radiation among successful island colonizers will be emphasized. Textile dyeing industry an environmental hazard. This review summarizes the autochthonous microorganisms selected as starters for the successful fermentation of vegetables and fruits. J. Understanding the cumulative effects of salinity, temperature and inoculum size for designing optimal halothermotolerantbioanodes from hypersaline sediment. Based on the species assignment results (Figure 5B), Dysgonomonas gadei and Filimana aquilariae were the two dominant species in rTDWW, wherein their relative abundances were 21 and 19%, respectively. However, in hypersaline sediment sample of Chott el Djerid (HSCE), source of the allochthonous community, the most abundant phylum was Proteobacteria (86%) approximately seven times higher than that in rTDWW (12.5%). It is worth noting that the bacterial phyla identified in the three biofilms show heterogeneous profiles composed of phyla found in rTDWW and in HSCE. “Extremophile diversity and biotechnological potential from desert environments and saline systems of southern Tunisia,” in Extremophiles: From Biology to Biotechnology, eds V. Ravi, D. Durvasula, and V. Subba Rao (Boca Raton, FL: CRC Publishers), 33–64. (2018). doi: 10.1021/acssuschemeng.5b00234, Meerbergen, K., Van Geel, M., Waud, M., Willems, K. A., Dewil, R., Van Impe, J., et al. doi: 10.1002/mbo3.413, Monzon, O., Yang, Y., Kim, J., Heldenbrand, A., Li, Q., and Alvarez, P. J. J. A classic example of this kind of bacteria would be Actinomycetes. All authors: contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. Interestingly, these reactors demonstrated COD removal proportional to the production of current generation. Halotolerant bioanodes: The applied potential modulates the electrochemical characteristics, the biofilm structure and the ratio of the two dominant genera. Power densities microbial communities of brewery wastewater-fed microbial fuel cells according to the initial substrates. These methods involve (i) physical methods (coagulation–flocculation, adsorption, and filtration techniques), (ii) oxidation methods categorized as advanced oxidation processes (cavitation, photocatalytic oxidation, Fenton chemistry) and chemical oxidation using oxidizing agents (O3 and H2O2), and (iii) bioremediation methods (fungi, algae, bacteria) (Gosavi and Sharma, 2014; Yeap et al., 2014; Chandrakant et al., 2016; Chouchane et al., 2018; Jiang et al., 2018). (2019). (2019) demonstrated the enrichment of efficient exoelectrogenic microorganisms from hypersaline sediment of Chott El Djerid (HSCE) able to produce a current density in the range of 7 A/m2 under combined high temperature and hypersaline conditions (temperature 45°C, salinity 165 g/L) using lactate as carbon source, i.e., anodic fuel. The average current densities calculated from 48 research papers are 2.6 A/m2 for industrial wastewater and 0.8 A/m2 for domestic wastewater. 20, 125–138. 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